bedrock_big_logo During the last couple of weeks I had to work on a PHP project with a custom WordPress stack I have never used before: Bedrock.

The home page says “Bedrock is a modern WordPress stack that gets you started with the best development tools, practices, and project structure.“.

What Bedrock really is

It is a regular WordPress installation with a different folder structure and is integrated with composer for dependencies management and capistrano for deploy. The structure reminds Rails or similar frameworks but contains usual WordPress component and run on the same web stack.

├── composer.json
├── config
│   ├── application.php
│   └── environments
│       ├── development.php
│       ├── staging.php
│       └── production.php
├── vendor
└── web
├── app
│   ├── mu-plugins
│   ├── plugins
│   ├── themes
│   └── uploads
├── wp-config.php
├── index.php
└── wp

Server configuration

The project use to works on Apache with mod_php but I personally don’t like this stack. I’d like to test it on HHVM but at the moment I preferred to run it on nginx with PHP-FPM. Starting with an empty Ubuntu 14.04 installation I set up a LEMP stack with memcached and Redis using apt-get:

apt-get update
apt-get install build-essential tcl8.5 curl screen bootchart git mailutils munin-node vim nmap tcpdump nginx mysql-server mysql-client memcached redis-server php5-fpm php5-curl php5-mysql php5-mcrypt php5-memcache php5-redis php5-gd

Everything works fine except the Redis extension (used for custom function unrelated with WordPress). I don’t know why but the config file wasn’t copied into the configuration directory /etc/php5/fpm/conf.d/. You can find it among the available mods into /etc/php5/mods-available/.

PHP-FPM uses a standard configuration placed into /etc/php5/fpm/pool.d/example.conf. It listen on or unix socket in /var/run/php5-fpm-example.sock (I assume the configured name was “example”).

Memcached should be configured to be used for session sharing among multiple servers. To activate it you need to edit the php.ini configuration file setting the following parameters into /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini

session.save_handler = memcache
session.save_path = 'tcp://,tcp://'

nginx configuration is placed into /etc/nginx/sites-available/ and linked into /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/ as usual and forward request to PHP-FPM for PHP files.

server {
listen 80 default deferred;
root /var/www/example/htdocs/current/web/;
index index.html index.htm index.php;
access_log /var/www/example/logs/access.log;
error_log /var/www/example/logs/error.log;
location / {
try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?q=$uri&$args;
location ~\.php$ {
try_files $uri =404;
# fastcgi_pass;
fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php5-fpm-example.sock;
fastcgi_index index.php;
fastcgi_buffers 16 16k;
fastcgi_buffer_size 32k;
include fastcgi_params;
location ~ /\.ht {
deny all;

Root directory will be web/ of Bedrock prefixed with current/ to support the capistrano directory structure displayed below.

├── current -> /var/www/example/htdocs/releases/20150120114500/
├── releases
│   ├── 20150080072500
│   ├── 20150090083000
│   ├── 20150100093500
│   ├── 20150110104000
│   └── 20150120114500
├── repo
│   └── <VCS related data>
├── revisions.log
└── shared
└── <linked_files and linked_dirs>

Local configuration

I’m quite familiar with capistrano because of my Ruby recent background. You need a Ruby version greater then 1.9.3 to run it (RVM helps). First step is to download dependencies. Ruby uses Bundler.

# run it to install bundler gem the first time
gem install bundler
# run it to install dependencies
bundle install

Bundler read the Gemfile (and Gemfile.lock) and download all the required gems (Ruby libraries).

Now the technological stack is ready locally and on server 🙂
I’ll probably describe how to run a LEMP stack on OS X in a next post. For the moment I’m assuming you are able to run it locally. Here is useful guides by Jonas Friedmann and rtCamp.

Anyway Bedrock could run over any LAMP/LEMP stack. The only “special” feature is the Composer integration. Composer for PHP is like Bundler for Ruby. Helps developers to manage dependencies in the project. Here is used to manage plugins, themes and WordPress core update.

You can run composer install to install libraries. If you update libraries configuration or you want to force download of them (maybe after a fresh install) run composer update.


Capistrano enable user to setup different deploy environment. A global configuration is defined and you need to specify only custom configuration for each environment. An example of /config/deploy/production.rb:

set :application, 'example'
set :stage, :production
set :branch, "master"
server '', user: 'user', roles: %w{web app db}

Everything else is inherited from global config where are defined all the other deploy properties. Is important to say that deploy script of capistrano on Bedrock only download source code from Git repo and run composer install for main project. If you need to run in on any plugin you new to define a custom capistrano task and run it after the end of deploy. For instance you can add in the global configuration the following lines in order to install dependencies on a specific plugin:

namespace :deploy do
desc 'Rebuild Plugin Libraries'
task :updateplugin do
on roles(:app), in: :sequence, wait: 5 do
execute "cd /var/www/#{fetch(:application)}/htdocs/current/web/app/plugins/anything/ && composer install"
after 'deploy:publishing', 'deploy:updateplugin'

Now you are ready to deploy your Bedrock install on server!
Simply run cap production deploy, restart PHP-FPM (service php5-fpm restart) and enjoy it 😀

Many thanks to Giuseppe, great sysadmin and friend, for support during development and deploy of this @#@?!?@# application.